Abstract: This research analyzes the effect of being a sexual and/or gender minority on income, and the effect of discriminatory language and behavior toward sexual and gender minorities in the workplace on willingness to continue working. Utilizing the “Survey on LGBT Issues in the Workplace Environment 2014” conducted by Nijiiro Diversity, a nonprofit organization, the multiple regression analyses reveal that being a minority in terms of sexual orientation and being a transgender individual have effects on income, without control variables. With control variables, the association between income and identifying as lesbian or gay, identifying as bisexual when gender at birth was male, or being a transgender individual whose gender at birth was female became insignificant. However, even after controlling other variables, being a bisexual whose gender at birth was female, being a transgender whose assigned gender at birth was male, and possessing other sexual orientations had negative effects on income. This suggests that economic discrimination against sexual and gender minorities affects various categories of sexual and gender minorities differently. Further, findings indicate that the existence of discriminatory language and behavior toward sexual and gender minorities in the workplace has a negative effect on willingness to continue working. As this paper used a web survey, the conclusions should not be overgeneralized.
Keywords: LGBT, workplace discrimination, income, willingness to continue working, Japan